The function of alloying elements in stainless steel

- Oct 12, 2017 -

In general, pure metal has a relatively high plasticity, when the addition of other alloying elements, the formation of single-phase solid solution also has better plasticity, such as iron-nickel alloy can form a continuous solid solution, so iron and nickel in any proportion of the case, The plasticity is very high.


        However, in the presence of other elements under the conditions, the formation of insoluble in solid solution or part of the solid solution in the intermetallic compound, so that the plasticity of the metal, so the plastic than the pure metal or single-phase solid solution plasticity.


        Iron (Fe): is the basic metal elements of stainless steel;


        Chromium (Cr): is the main ferrite forming elements, chromium and oxygen can produce corrosion-resistant Cr2O3 passivation film, stainless steel is to maintain corrosion resistance of one of the basic elements, chromium content can increase the steel passivation film Repair capacity, the general chromium content in stainless steel must be more than 12%;


        · Carbon (C): is a strong austenite forming elements, can significantly improve the strength of steel, while the carbon on the corrosion resistance also has a negative impact;


        · Ni (Ni): is the main austenite forming elements, can slow down the corrosion of steel and grain growth in the heating;


        Molybdenum (Mo): is the carbide forming elements, the formation of carbides is extremely stable, can prevent the austenite heating when the grain grows, reducing the thermal sensitivity of steel, and molybdenum elements can make the passivation film more Dense and solid, so as to effectively improve the resistance of stainless steel Cl-resistant;


        Niobium, titanium (Nb, Ti): is a strong carbide forming elements, can improve the steel resistance to intergranular corrosion. However, titanium carbide has a detrimental effect on the surface quality of stainless steel, thus improving the performance by adding niobium in stainless steel with high surface requirements.


        Nitrogen (N): is a strong austenite forming element, can significantly improve the strength of steel. But the impact of the aging of stainless steel is greater, so the use of stainless steel in the stamping to strictly control the nitrogen content.


        Phosphorus, sulfur (P, S): is a harmful element in stainless steel, the corrosion resistance of stainless steel and stamping will have a negative impact.


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